- Letter to the Editor
- Open Access
Allele frequencies of F13A01, FESFPS, and vWA in a group of cohorts of the Dusun population from Borneo, Malaysia
Egyptian Journal of Forensic Sciences volume 9, Article number: 41 (2019)
Short tandem repeats (STR), or repeated DNA sequences, are microsatellite markers that are often used for human identification, particularly in forensic and paternity analyses. STR polymorphisms refer to differing numbers of copies of the repeated DNA sequences, and these polymorphisms can occur within a population of individuals, allowing for their unique identification (Kristmundsdóttir et al., 2016). In our study, three STRs (F13A01, FESFPS, and vWA) were analyzed to generate frequency data for the Dusun population from Borneo, Malaysia. This population contributes to the multiracial population of the country (Reid, 1997). Dusun communities are also present in countries such as Brunei and the Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. According to the Department of Statistics Malaysia, the Dusun population makes up 24.5% of the 3.12 million people in Sabah, Borneo. The use of STR regional frequency data will be essential for population and human identity testing for the Dusun population.
After obtaining informed consent, saliva samples were collected using sterile cotton buds from 100 unrelated Dusun individuals born in the Sabah State. All subjects were confirmed to have lived in Sabah for three consecutive generations. Samples were amplified using the Promega Geneprint™ STR system (Madison, WI, USA) following the manual method described in the user’s guide. The polymerase chain reaction products were separated by vertical denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (6% for silver STRIII and 4% for FFv triplex) followed by silver staining of the gels according to the published method (Budowle et al., 1995). Allele designation was performed by side to side comparison with known allelic ladders. Allelic frequencies for each locus in the Dusun population were then compared with other major populations in Malaysia: Malay, Chinese, and Iban (Iban is the largest ethnic group in Borneo). Pairwise genetic distances were calculated between these populations using Mega software version 7.0.26 (Pennsylvania State University, USA) (Zhang et al., 2017). This study was approved by the Research and Ethics Committee, Universiti Sains Malaysia.
Allele nomenclatures of F13A01, FESFPS, and vWA were determined by the number of STR repeats and described based on the International Society for Forensic Haemogenetics guidelines (Gusmão et al., 2006). The three alleles chosen represent the individual microsatellite markers that have unique characteristics in the Dusun population. The power of discrimination values for the markers F13A01, FESFPS, and vWA were high at 0.8496, 0.8112, and 0.9173, respectively. The power of exclusion values were 0.4767, 0.4524, and 0.6074, respectively (Table 1). The highest frequency allele for these microsatellites differed: for F13A01, it was allele 6 (0.545); for FESFPS, it was allele 11 (0.405); and for vWA, it was allele 17 (0.31) (Table 1). This is the first report of the distribution of F13A01 and FESFPA in Malaysia Dusun population. The allele frequency of vWA in the Malaysian Dusun population was previously published by (Kee et al., 2011), and our results were in agreement with theirs.
The genetic distance analysis showed significant differences between the Dusun population and the Malay, Chinese, and Iban populations (Table 2). Although the number of STR alleles investigated in the study was small, this short study illustrates the importance of DNA profiling for this minority group.
Overall, the microsatellite vWA had the highest power of discrimination for the Dusun population, and F13A01 showed the greatest genetic distance among the populations. The three STR loci described herein have useful discriminatory power for genetic analysis for forensic purposes. Profiling additional STR loci will enhance the unique profile that represents individuals from Malaysia Dusun population.
Availability of data and materials
The datasets used and/or analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.
Short tandem repeats
Power of exclusion
Power of discrimination
Budowle B, Baechtel FS, Smerick JB, Presley K, Giusti A, Parsons G et al (1995) D1S80 population data in African Americans, Caucasians, southeastern Hispanics, southwestern Hispanics, and Orientals. Journal of Forensic Science. 40(1):38–44
Gusmão L, Butler JM, Carracedo A, Gill P, Kayser M, Mayr W et al (2006) DNA Commission of the International Society of Forensic Genetics (ISFG): an update of the recommendations on the use of Y-STRs in forensic analysis. International journal of legal medicine. 120(4):191–200
Ishara SM, Panneerchelvam S, Yusofc FZM Allele frequencies of STRs (F13A01, FESFPS and vWA) in random Iban population of Malaysia. Malaysian Journal Of Forensic Sciences (MJOFS): Mission Statement.:15
Kee B, Lian L, Lee P, Lai T, Chua K (2011) Genetic data for 15 STR loci in a Kadazan-Dusun population from East Malaysia. Genetics and Molecular Research. 10(2):739–743
Kristmundsdóttir S, Sigurpálsdóttir BD, Kehr B, Halldórsson BV (2016) popSTR: population-scale detection of STR variants. Bioinformatics. 33(24):4041–4048
Panneerchelvam S, Haslindawaty N, Ravichandran M, Norazmi M, Zainuddin Z (2003) Allele frequency distribution for 10 STR loci in the Malay population of Malaysia. Journal of forensic sciences. 48(2):451–452
Panneerchelvam S, Thevan KK, KokFai L, Saravanakumar M, Sumathy V, Yuvaneswari K et al (2004) Polymorphism of 9 STRs in ethnic Chinese population of Malaysia. Journal of Forensic Science. 49(5):JFS2004169-1133
Reid A (1997) Endangered identity: Kadazan or Dusun in Sabah (East Malaysia). Journal of Southeast Asian Studies. 28(1):120–136
Zhang X, Hu L, Du L, Nie A, Rao M, bo Pang J, et al. Genetic polymorphisms of 20 autosomal STR loci in the Vietnamese population from Yunnan Province, Southwest China. International journal of legal medicine. 2017;131(3):661-662.
We would like to thank all the subjects for their participation in this study.
Ethics approval and consent to participate
Research and Ethics Committee, Universiti Sains Malaysia.
Consent for publication
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Aziz, M.Y., Panneerchelvam, S. & Ishak, A.R. Allele frequencies of F13A01, FESFPS, and vWA in a group of cohorts of the Dusun population from Borneo, Malaysia. Egypt J Forensic Sci 9, 41 (2019) doi:10.1186/s41935-019-0148-0