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Table 1 Table representing the articles selected fulfilling the inclusion criteria

From: Global trends of suicidal thought, suicidal ideation, and self-harm during COVID-19 pandemic: a systematic review

SL NO Author Vulnerable Group Risk Factors Period AIMS PLACE Results Authors suggestions in tackling the risk factors observed in the study
1 Cheung T et al. (Cheung et al. 2021) Younger age Anxiety, loss of employment, isolation, and male gender 2020 To examine the prevalence and corelates of suicidal ideation in 10 countries during pandemic, examining individual health belief association with suicidal ideation, and direction for its prevention Eastern & western countries Low suicidal ideation in UK & Brazil compared to Macau, more among young married male, with differential health belief. Association of face mask wearing had shown less suicidal ideation
Limitation of study: Cross-sectional study cannot infer any causal relationship between variability and cannot be generalised
Prevention: Joint international collaboration for suicide prevention strategies
Implementing more of online recreational activities, small-scale household production and supply for improving financial crisis
2 Kohls E, Baldofski S et al. (Kohls et al. 2021) Students Stress, loneliness, low social support 2021 Mental health status assessment with standardise measures Germany Study suggested university students are more prone for depression in Germany. Online intervention promotes the help seeking measures and it targeted on mental health
Limitation: Standardized inferences could not be drawn due to large sample size
Prevention: Online intervention support
Online psychotherapy and recreational activities like video chatting
3 Edith Hermosillo De La torre A et al. (Edith Hermosillo-de-la-Torre et al. 2021) 14–21 years
Young adults and adolescents
Self-harm, intoxication 2021 Association between suicidal behavior with covariables like anxiety, depression, and drug use Mexico 21% of students showed suicidal behavior, with increased incidence in female population, and those with depression, anxiety, and drug intake
Limitation: Strategies to improve mental health had not been mentioned
Prevention: Vaccine against Infection
Rehabilitation clubs to be made online
4 Silverio murillo A (Silverio-Murillo et al. 2021) General
population
Insomnia, stress, and anxiety suicides 2021 Internet search including insomnia, anxiety, depression, and suicides Latin America There is increase in anxiety and stress during pandemic and no change in depression and suicide
Limitation: Internet search cannot be generalized among population
Prevention: Income support by country
Online YOGA sections and meditations
5 Bruffaerts R (Bruffaerts et al. 2021 Mar) Health care professional Suicidal thought, behavior 2021 Cross-sectional survey of assessing association of suicidal thought and behavior among health care professional Belgium There were increase in prevalence of death wish, suicidal ideation, and suicide plan but no suicide attempts
Limitation: Study did not assess the generalized suicidal thought and behavior but assessed during COVID-19 pandemic
Prevention: Decrease in suicidal thoughts and behavior among those received social support
Shifts in working, to reduce stress, chatting with professional colleagues
6 D'Hondt F (D’Hondt et al. 2020) College students Social isolation 2020 Online survey among university students for assessing self-reported mental health, associated factor, and assess care-seeking during quarantine France Increase in the prevalence of mental health issue among students, to underline surveillance prevention and access care
Limitation: Large sample size
Prevention: Access care and prevention
Peer group online quiz, online library, online games
7 Pramukti E (Pramukti et al. 2020) College students Anxiety, suicidal thought, infection, and contraction 2020 Social media used to collect information about suicidal thought, anxiety, and ideation among Taiwan, Thailand and Indonesia Taiwan, Thailand, Indonesia Increase in suicidal thoughts and suicidal ideation among Taiwan students than Indonesia and Thailand students
Limitation: Social media may not be used by everyone
Prevention: Adequate support mechanism
Social media support to spread awareness, strengthening health care facilities
8 Rahman M (Rahman et al. 2021) General
population
Depression and anxiety 2021 Online assessment of suicidal behavior and ideation Bangladesh Increase in incidence among females, 33% cases showing suicidal risk, increase in incidence among divorced, widow, and low education statues
Limitation: Online survey cannot be generalized
Prevention: Awareness of COVID-19 pandemic, improving mental health status
Social workers to be trained and accessibility even to remote set up to be formulated by government and NGOs
9 Yom-Tov E (Yom-Tov et al. 2021) Covid 19 Patient Anosmia, ageusia 2021 Studying increase risk of suicidal ideation among anosmia and ageusia patients USA Effect of COVID-19 on senses will have a long-lasting effect and implication on patient well being
Limitation: Self-diagnosis of disease
Prevention: Special precaution during treatment and recovery
Awareness to be spread among public about Dos and Don’ts in Covid-19 pandemic, with the help of media
10 Mamum M (Mamun et al. 2021) General
Population
Fear of COVID-19, comorbidities, insomnia, suicidal ideation, and depression 2021 Cross-sectional survey about psychological effect by sociodemographic data, fear of COVID-19, insomnia, and comorbidities Bangladesh Increase in the prevalence of depression and suicidal ideation among young, females, comorbidities, infection, and cigarette smoking
Limitation: Self-reported scale
Prevention: Psychological support and good mental health services
Newspaper articles and lectures in media by doctors and psychotherapist
11 Daly Z (Daly et al. 2021) General
population
Suicides and self-harm 2021 Univariate and multivariate analysis of suicidality and self-harm with mental health issues Canada Increase incidence of suicide and self-harm among quarantine individual but less incidence among those quarantine after recent travel
Prevention: Public health response to be mitigated to reduce mental health issues and suicidality
Online counseling
12 Staples L (Staples et al. 2020) General
population
Depression and anxiety 2021 Analysing use of digital mental health services prior COVID-19 and during COVID-19 with a questionnaire-based study Australia Increase in the number of users of digital mental health services during first week of COVID-19 and subsequently
Limitation: Large section of society, economy and long run COVID-19 are to be considered
Prevention: Adopting helpful strategies to improve mental health
Training junior doctors and nursing staff, so that counseling is easily available for everyone
13 Every palmar S (Every-Palmer et al. 2020) Adults Lockdown 2021 To access psychological wellbeing with lockdown effect, reducing job opportunities, less recreation activities by means of Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10), the GAD-7, and the Well-Being Index (WHO-5) New Zealand Prevention: Adequate provision of psychosocial support with similar priority to contact tracing, provision of personal protective equipment, and procurement of ventilators Adequate medical aids
14 Shongwe M (Shongwe and Huang 2021) Adult Perceived stressors, prevalence of psychological distress, and suicidal ideation 2021 This study was a cross-sectional, population-based household telephone survey of 993 conveniently sampled adults (18 + years) from all the four administrative regions of Eswatini. COVID-19-related psychological distress was assessed using the Kessler 6-item Psychological Distress Scale (K Eswatini Increased risk for moderate/severe psychological distress
Limitation: cannot be generalised as there may be non-telephone users
Prevention: Government health policies to relive psychological distress
 
15 Sahimi H (Sahimi et al. 2021) Health care workers Suicidal ideation and depression 2021 To investigate suicidal ideation in terms of the rate and associated factors in a sample of Malaysian healthcare workers during the early-phase of the COVID-19 pandemic Malaysian Increase in proportion of health care workers suicidal ideation and clinical depression
Limitation: Small sample size, casualty of suicidal ideation not known, cannot be generalized
Prevention: Identification and treatment of depression, early intervention
Regular meeting with peer group and prevention strategies among health care professionals
16 Maatouk I (Maatouk et al. 2021) Adults Job security, increased risk of infection, suicidal ideation, self-harm 2021 This cross-sectional study focuses on the social psychological correlates of self-harm and suicidal ideation during the COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) outbreak in Lebanon, which is a country characterized by political and economic instability Lebanon Male and with low income had raised risk of suicidal ideation and self-harm. Political trust, religiosity, high-income and female group had less chances of suicidal ideation and self-harm
Limitation: cannot be generalized
Prevention: Need to ensure adequate access to mental health services to the general population amid the COVID-19 outbreak
Temporary small-scale production setups at house by family to improvise financial status, with government supports