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Table 2 Gender-based variation in mean sizes of the lips among the study population (n = 300; Indian: 75 males and 75 females, Malaysian-Chinese: 75 males and 75 females)

From: Lip print evaluation of Indian and Malaysian-Chinese subjects by manual and digital methods: a correlational study with gender and ethnicity

Group
  Length—upper lip p-value* Length—lower lip p-value*
Mean SD Mean SD
Indian male 5.28 0.51 0.167 5.63 0.67 0.167
Indian female 4.96 0.43 5.26 0.49
  Width—upper lip p-value* Width—lower lip p-value*
Mean SD Mean SD
Indian male 0.98 0.17 0.2 1.13 0.18 0.074
Indian female 0.89 0.14 0.99 0.15
  Length—upper lip p-value* Length—lower lip p-value*
Mean SD Mean SD
Malaysian-Chinese male 5.52 0.52 0.032 5.67 0.57 0.035
Malaysian-Chinese female 5.08 0.41 5.16 0.42
  Width—upper lip p-value* Width—lower lip p-value*
Mean SD Mean SD
Malaysian-Chinese male 1.15 0.19 0.320 1.30 0.20 0.743
Malaysian-Chinese female 1.08 0.16 1.16 0.18
Gender
  Length—upper lip p–value* Length—lower lip p-value*
Mean SD Mean SD
Male 5.40 0.53 < 0.001 5.66 0.63 < 0.001
Female 5.03 0.43 5.21 0.46
  Width—upper lip p-value* Width—lower lip p-value*
Mean SD Mean SD
Male 1.07 0.20 < 0.001 1.22 0.21 < 0.001
Female 0.99 0.18 1.08 0.19
  1. *Independent sample t test; p ≤ 0.05 is considered significant