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Table 8 Results found by the included studies

From: Applicability of the mandibular canine index for sex estimation: a systematic review

Study Canine index average Canine sexual dimorphism Accuracy of sex estimation Population
Acharya and Mainali 2009 Female: 0.26
Male: 0.26
a Female: 44.44%
Male: 57.14%
Nepal
Acharya et al. 2011 Female: 0.24
Male: 0.24
a Female: 52%
Male: 49.51%
India
Anu et al. 2018 Female: 0.22
Male: 0.22
a Female: 20.0%
Male: 88.0%
India
Atreya et al. 2019 Right canine:
Female: 0.22
Male: 0.23
Left canine
Female: 0.22
Male: 0.22
a Right
Female: 60.0%
Male: 57.5%
Left
Female: 62.5%
Male: 57.5%
Nepal
Azevedo et al. 2019 a Right canine: 85.8%
Left canine: 85.8%
Right
Female: 58.6%
Male: 72.0%
Left
Female: 57.1%
Male: 72.0%
Portugal
Bai et al. 2018 Right canine
Female: 0.25
Male: 0.26
Left canine
Female: 0.25
Male: 0.26
a Female: not mentioned
Male: 89%
a
Bakkannavar et al. 2015 Right canine
Female: 0.27
Male: 0.28
Left canine
Female: 0.27
Male: 0.28
a Right
Female: 75.6%
Male: 73.2%
Left
Female: 76.8%
Male: 73.2%
India
Dhakar et al. 2012 Right canine
Rajasthan (Female: 0.24/Male: 0.27)
Gujarat (Female: 0.25/Male: 0.27)
Karnataka (Female: 0.24/Male: 0.27)
Left canine
Rajasthan (Female: 0.23/Male: 0.26)
Gujarat (Female: 0.24/Male: 0.27)
Karnataka (Female: 0.23/Male: 0.27)
a Rajasthan: 78%
Gujarat: 76%
Karnataka: 82%
India
Divyadharsini and Kumar 2019 Female: 0.26
Male: 0.27
a a India
Duraiswamy et al. 2009 Right canine
Optimal-fluoride (Female: 18.46/Male: 20.46)
High-fluoride (Female: 19.34/Male: 18.73)
Left canine
Optimal-fluoride (Female: 19.14/Male: 21.07)
High-fluoride (Female: 19.34/Male: 20.10)
a a India
Gandhi et al. 2017 Female: 0.25036
Male: 0.24808
Right canine: 6.85%
Left canine: 7.62%
Female: 83.8%
Male: 74.19%
India
Gargano et al. 2014 Right canine
Female: 0.2658
Male: 0.2712
Left canine
Female: 0.2658
Male: 0.2714
a Female: 43.67%
Male: 48.1%
Uruguay
Grover et al. 2013 Right canine
Female: 0.22
Male: 0.25
Left canine
Female: 0.21
Male: 0.23
Right canine: 10.11%
Left canine: 4.44%
Right canine: 9.43%
Left canine: 11.81%
India
Gupta et al. 2014 Right canine
Female: 0.22494
Male: 0.21669
CANINE
Female: 0.23410
Male: 0.22041
a a India
Gupta and Daniel 2016 Right canine
Female: 24.57
Male: 26.23
Left canine
Female: 24.77
Male: 26.32
a Right
Female: 77.36%
Male: 73.58%
Left
Female: 66.04%
Male: 67.92%
India
Hosmani et al. 2013 Female: 0.26406
Male: 0.26574
a Female: 50%
Male: 40%
India
Ibeachu et al. 2012 Right canine
Female: 0.208
Male: 0.228
Left canine
Female: 0.207
Male: 0.230
Right canine: 15.24%
Left canine: 16.74%
a Nigeria
Iqbal et al. 2015 Female: 0.2368
Male: 0.2572
a Female: 70–97%
Male: 8–73%
China
Jacob et al. 2018 Female: 0.279
Male: 0.284
a Female: 70.2%
Male: 40.6%
India
Kakkar et al. 2013 Female: 0.1896
Male: 0.1921
a Female: 55.03%
Male: 53.54%
India
Kaushal et al. 2003 Right canine
Casts (Female: 0.267/Male: 0.278)
Intraoral (Female: 0.267/Male: 0.280)
Left canine
Casts (Female: 0.268/Male: 0.283)
Intraoral (Female: 0.267/Male: 0.282)
Casts
Right canine: 7.96%
Left canine: 9.79%
Intraoral
Right canine: 7.95%
Left canine: 8.89%
a India
Kaushal et al. 2004 Right canine
Female: 0.26
Male: 0.28
Left canine
Female: 0.26
Male: 0.28
Right canine: 7.954%
Left canine: 8.891%
Right
Female: 80%
Male: 70%
Left
Female: 83.33%
Male: 66.67%
India
Krishnan et al. 2016 a a Female: 24%
Male: 84%
India
Kumawat et al. 2017 Right canine
Female: 0.24
Male: 0.25
Left canine
Female: 0.24
Male: 0.25
Right canine: 5.53%
Left canine: 5.42%
Female: 78%
Male: 81.33%
India
Lagos et al. 2016 a a 75.29% Chile
Latif et al. 2016 Female: 0.253
Male: 0.269
a Female: 76%
Male: 80%
India
Mohsenpour et al. 2017 Right canine
Female: 0.2545
Male: 0.2677
Left canine
Female: 0.2567
Male: 0.2704
a Right
Female: 62%
Male: 44%
Left
Female: 64%
Male: 54%
Iran
Muhamedagić and Sarajlić 2013 Right canine
Female: 0.247
Male: 0.259
Left canine
Female: 0.238
Male: 0.250
a Right: 68.89%
Left: 68.54%
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Muller et al. 2001 Female: 0.261
Male: 0.275
a a France
Muthukumar and Thenmozhi 2018 Right canine
Female: 0.2784
Male: 0.2855
Left canine
Female: 0.2784
Male: 0.2878
a Right
Female: 75.6%
Male: 73.2%
Left
Female: 76.8%
Male: 73.2%
India
Nadendla et al. 2016 Clinical
Female: 0.2630
Male: 0.2614
Occlusal
Female: 0.2765
Male: 0.2625
a Clinical
Female: 31.70%
Male: 76.70%
Occlusal
Female: 58.30%
Male: 71.70%
India
Nagalaxmi et al. 2014 Right canine
Female: 0.2497
Male: 0.2501
Left canine
Female: 0.2540
Male: 0.2524
Right canine: 3.73%
Left canine: 3.06%
Right
Female: 70.0%
Male: 73.3%
LEFT
Female: 56.7%
Male: 66.7%
a
Narang et al. 2014 Right canine
Female: 0.248
Male: 0.255
Left canine
Female: 0.241
Male: 0.255
a Female: 67.6%
Male: 68.0%
India
Otuaga and Chris-Ozoko 2012 Right canine
Female: 0.26
Male: 0.27
Left canine
Female: 0.26
Male: 0.27
Right canine: 8.58%
Left canine: 8.54%
RIGHT
Female: 49.06%
Male: 50.94%
LEFT
Female: 49.06%
Male: 50.94%
Nigeria
Paramkusam et al. 2014 Female: 0.26
Male: 0.25
Right canine: 8.0%
Left canine: 8.4%
Female: 76.66%
Male: 80.00%
India
Patel et al. 2017 Right canine
Female: 0.249
Male: 0.263
Left canine
Female: 0.249
Male: 0.263
Right canine: 8.42%
Left canine: 8.40%
Female: 80.00%
Male: 77.50%
India
Patil et al. 2015 Female: 0.319
Male: 0.344
a a India
Priyadharshini et al. 2018 Right canine
Female: 0.25
Male: 0.25
Left canine
Female: 0.25
Male: 0.25
a a India
Rajarathnam et al. 2016 Right canine
Casts (Female: 0.25/Male: 0.26)
Intraoral (Female: 0.25/Male: 0.26)
Left canine
Casts (Female: 0.25/Male: 0.26)
Intraoral (Female: 0.25/Male: 0.26)
Right canine: 6.90%
Left canine: 6.96%
73% India
Rao et al. 1989 Female: 0.254
Male: 0.296
a Female: 87.5%
Male: 84.3%
India
Reddy et al. 2008 Right canine
Female: 0.246
Male: 0.259
Left canine
Female: 0.247
Male: 0.261
Left canine: 9.058% Female: 66%
Male: 78%
India
Sassi et al. 2012 Standard value: 0.267 a Female: 29%
Male: 54%
Uruguay
Shahid et al. 2018 Female: 0.26
Male: 0.26
a Female: 43.70%
Male: 51.30%
Pakistan
Sharma and Gorea 2010 Right canine
17–30 years (Female: 0.259/Male: 0.265)
30–50 years (Female: 0.252/Male: 0.256)
Left canine
17–30 years (Female: 0.257/Male: 0.265)
30–50 years (Female: 0.252/Male: 0.254)
RIGHT
17–30 years: 5.616%
30–50 years: 4.687%
LEFT
17–30 years: 6.103%
3050 years: 3.882%
a India
Sherfudhin et al. 1996 a a Female: 50.17%
Male: 49.83%
India
Silva et al. 2016 Female: 0.30
Male: 0.31
a Female: 25.7%
Male: 94%
Portugal
Singh et al. 2012 Right canine
Female: 0.21
Male: 0.21
Left canine
Female: 0.21
Male: 0.21
Right canine:
6.926%
Left canine:
5.498%
a India
Singh et al. 2012 Right canine
Female: 0.21
Male: 0.21
Left canine
Female: 0.21
Male: 0.21
Right canine: 6.926%
Left canine:
5.498%
a India
Singh et al. 2015 Right canine
Female: 0.25
Male: 0.26
Left canine
Female: 0.25
Male: 0.26
Right canine: 14.1%
Left canine:
15.2%
Female: 87.2%
Male: 83.8%
India
Sreedhar et al. 2015 Right canine
Female: 0.27
Male: 0.25
Left canine
Female: 0.28
Male: 0.27
a Right MCI: 84.3%
Left MCI: 75.8%
India
Srivastava 2010 Right canine
Female: 0.255
Male: 0.256
Left canine
Female: 0.256
Male: 0.257
Right canine: 2.804%
Left canine: 2.326%
Female: 51%
Male: 48%
India
Vijayan et al. 2019 Right canine
Female: 0.521
Male: 0.444
Left canine
Female: 0.526
Male: 0.447
a a India
Vishwakarma and Guha 2011 Right canine
Female: 0.2569
Male: 0.2864
Left canine
Female: 0.2645
Male: 0.2888
Right canine: 12.51%
Left canine: 10.15%
a India
Yadav et al. 2002 Female: 0.288
Male: 0.310
a Female: 81.1%
Male: 83.3%
India
  1. aNot found