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Table 3 Indices of facial flatness in anthropology (Chalala et al. 2019)

From: Orthodontists in forensic facial approximation (FFA): current inter-disciplinary perspective

Index of facial flatness Explanation
Frontal index Perpendicular distance of nasion from the frontal chord (2)/frontal chord (between the Frontomalaria Orbitalia) (1)
Simotic index Minimum distance from the median ridge of nasal bone to simotic chord (3)/minimum horizontal breadth of nasal bone (4)
Zygomaxillary index Distance from subspinale (point A) to zygomaxillary chord (6)/zygomaxillary chord ( between the zygomaxillaria anteriora) (5)