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Table 1 Evolution of reference planes (Teja and Teja 2013)

From: Orthodontists in forensic facial approximation (FFA): current inter-disciplinary perspective

Year Scientist name Reference plane Figure
1786 Petrus Camper Nasal spine to center of auditory meatus
“Modern science of anthropometry”
Fig. 1a
1795 Geoffroy de St. Hilaire Auditory opening to free margin of incisor teeth Fig. 1b
1862 Broca Alveolo–condylar plane–condyles to alveolar border of upper jaw “French horizontal” Fig. 1c
1884 International Anthropological Association From superior-most point of external auditory meatus (Porion) to most inferior point on bony orbit margin (Orbitale) Fig. 1d