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Table 2 Spectroscopic analysis of GSR for SDE

From: Spectroscopic (analytical) approach to gunshot residue analysis for shooting distance estimation: a systematic review

Reference Firearm/ammunition used Technique Target Findings
Capannesi et al. (1993) Not stated NAA • White cotton cloth • Quantified Sb concentration around a bullet entrance hole at a firing distance of 16.5 cm (first shot) and 26.7 cm (second shot)
Santos et al. (2007) 6.35 mm pistol ICP-MS • Cotton tissue • Quantified Pb, Ba, and Sb at a firing distance of 20 cm to 80 cm from the target at a radial distance of 1.5 cm to 5.5 cm from the bullet entrance hole
Gagliano-candela et al. (2008) Colt 38 special AAS • Whatman paper on polystyrene support • Determined the concentration of Pb on a target at a firing distance of up to 100 cm
Mou et al. (2008) Remington model 552 rifle (0.22 caliber) AFM and FTIR/ATR • Polyethylene and aluminum foil sheet • Characterized GSR particles at a firing distance of 0.5 ft, 2 ft, 10 ft, and 20 ft
• AFM images revealed varying shapes of the GSR particle with size and density inversely proportional to shooting distance
Bresson and Franck (2009) Glock 26 semi-automatic pistol Ballistic experiment • Concrete wall • Estimated the shooting distance from the impacting velocity of a bullet
Cecchetto et al. (2011) 7.65 mm pistol Micro-CT • Human leg • Firing distance up to 40 cm was estimated through GSR analysis in an intermediate gunshot wound
Barth et al. (2012) Glock model 19 semi-automatic pistol with different ammunition (9 mm × 19 GECO FMJ, 9 mm × 19 Sintox FMJ, and 9 mm × 19 Sintox forensic FMJ) m-XRF • 100% cotton denim
• A mixture of knitted 50% polyester and 50% acrylic fiber
• 100% acetate satin
• Estimated the range of fire up to 80 cm from the target
Turillazzi et al. (2013) 9 × 21 mm and 7.65 mm caliber handgun Laser confocal microscopy and ICP-AES • Pig skin • Obtained a greater concentration of the elemental trio (Pb, Ba, and Sb) in a close-range shot relative to mid and far-range shots for both firearms
Gradaščević et al. (2013) Pistol Crvena zastava M70/7.65 × 17 mm; Pistol Crvena zastava M57/7.62 × 25 mm; 9 mm luger pistol/9 × 19 mm; automated rifle/7.62 × 39 mm AAS • Pig skin • Estimated shooting distance in contact (5 cm) and near contact (10 cm) shot using GSR obtained from a bullet entrance hole
Hinrichs et al. (2016) .38 special revolver/.38 cartridge VP-SEM • Cotton and polyester textiles • Obtained the pattern of GSR distribution with low vacuum SEM images
• Estimated firing distance using the decay length of GSR distribution pattern
Zapata et al. (2018) Glock G17 pistol and 9 × 19 mm semi-jacketed hollow point ammunition Multi-spectral imaging • Cloth (white cotton fabric) • Estimated the shooting distance of up to 220 cm
Leiva et al. (2019) Revolver Taurus caliber with .38 ammunition XRD • Cotton-polyester fabric • Quantified GSR and estimated the shooting distance up to 300 cm
Pyl et al. (2019) 9 mm pistol; Rossi revolver 0.357 magnum LIBS • Cotton textiles • Produced permanent chemical images of residues for the correct classification of shooting distances