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Table 1 Chemographic method for GSR analysis

From: Spectroscopic (analytical) approach to gunshot residue analysis for shooting distance estimation: a systematic review

Reference Test type Compound detected Reagent used Description/color reaction
Ananth, Kalthom, and Me (Ananth et al. 2014) Dermal nitrate/paraffin test Nitrate Diphenylamine dissolved in strong sulfuric acid Picked up GSR on paraffin wax + reagent gives a blue color spot indicating the presence of nitrates
Chang, Jayaprakash, and Yew (Chang et al. 2013a, b) Spot test Lead (Pb) Sodium rhodizonate GSR sample + reagent gives a pink coloration indicating the presence of lead.
Saverio Romolo and Margot (2001) Walker test/Marshal and Tewari test Nitrite 2-Naphthylamine sulfanilic acid and citric acid GSR sample + reagent gives a pink coloration for the presence of nitrite
Ananth et al. (2014) Modified Griess test Nitrite Griess reagenta GSR sample + reagent gives a rose color for the presence of nitrite
Dalby et al. (2010) Harrison and Gilroy’s test Lead (Pb), barium (Ba), and antimony (Sb) • Triphenyl methylarsonium iodide alcoholic solution
• Sodium rhodizonate
• Dilute hydrochloric acid
GSR sample + triphenyl methylarsonium iodide alcoholic solution gives orange ring color for the presence of Sb. Two drops of sodium rhodizonate are added to the center of the orange ring, color changes to red for Pb or Ba or both. A drop of dilute hydrochloric acid is added to the red spot, color changes to blue for Pb. No color change is indicative of Ba
Ananth et al. (2014) Lunge testb Nitrocellulose (NC) Lunge reagent GSR sample + reagent gives a red azo color for NC
Niewoehner (2015) Zincon reagent testc Zinc (Zn) and titanium (Ti) Zincon reagent GSR sample + reagent gives a blue-colored complex for Zn and Ti
  1. aGriess reagent: 3% sulfanilamide N-(1-naphthyl) ethylene diamide dihydrochloride in 5% sulfuric acid
  2. bDetect organic compounds (NC) in GSR
  3. cApplied to Pb-free ammunition, e.g., Sintox ammunition