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Table 2 Details of other histological methods of age estimation

From: Evolution of dental age estimation methods in adults over the years from occlusal wear to more sophisticated recent techniques

Author Year and country Sample size (n) and study population Methodology Formula Error estimatea
Drusini et al. (Drusini et al. 1991) 1991 Italy n= 152 single-rooted teeth were collected. Root dentin transparency was measured under bright light. Measurement was done from the apex of the tooth to the most coronal extent of the transparency.
Measurements were done both by Vernier caliper and densitometric IBAS system.
- The errors range from ±5 to more than ±20 years. The highest percentages of success
within ±5 years were obtained for premolars.
Zander et al. (Zander and Hurzeler 1958) 1958 New York n=233 single-rooted teeth were collected from age range of 11 to 76 years. Teeth were decalcified and sectioned horizontally from apex to cementoenamel junction. Thickness of cementum= [a x 0.71] ÷ [b x 0.032] Average cemental thickness below 20 years= 0.076 mm
Average cemental thickness from 51 to 76 years= 0.215 mm.
Thickness of cementum tripled over years.
Pinchi et al. (Pinchi et al. 2007) 2007 Italy n=127 teeth from age group of 16–90 years. Teeth were decalcified and sections were obtained.
Measurements obtained were 1/3rd of root length on lingual side, 1/3rd f root length on vestibular side, thickness at apex.
y= [6 x 10-7x3] - [0.0009x2] + [0.3743x] + 12.14 Age estimated was 58.6 years ± 1.49 years with 95% reliability.
Stott et al. (Stott et al. 1982) 1982 Texas n=10 teeth were prepared for processing and they were obtained from 3 dissection cadavers. Teeth were sectioned using low speed saw and diamond blade and sections of 100–150μ were obtained.
Sections were stained with Alizarin red stain and cemental annulations were studied.
- Cadaver 1: known age=57 years.
Estimated age=58±1 years.
Cadaver 2:
Known age=67 years.
Estimate age = 63–70 years.
Cadaver 3:
Known age=76 years.
Estimated age= 73–78 years.
Wittwer-Backofen (Wittwer-Backofen et al. 2004) 1990 - Teeth were sectioned and sections were observed under transmitting light microscopy.
Representative images were captured and processed with image analysis software.
- A confidence interval of 2.5 years was obtained but can exceed these error ranges if teeth are post-mortally affected.
Solheim et al. (Solheim 1990) 1990 Norway n=1000 teeth, 100 of each type excluding molars in Caucasian population. Half-sectioned teeth was stained with carbol fuschin and cementum was studied with stereomicroscope. - Strongest correlation was found in range, i.e., r=0.54 for maxillary incisors and r=0.75 for mandibular second premolars.
Kosa et al. (Kosa et al. 1990) 1990 Hungary Single-rooted teeth of 25 individuals were selected. Weight concentrations of calcium and phosphorus and Ca/P weight ratio was calculated with the help of electron probe microanalysis in dentin.
TESLA BS-300 SEM (scanning electron microscope) was used coupled with X-ray detector and X-ray analyzer.
Y= 37.17x + 139. 37
X is the age
Y is the Ca/P weight ratio
Weight concentration of phosphorus was having closer correlation with age (r=0.9712).
  1. aNote that the method of error estimate in all the studies is not uniform