Skip to main content

Table 5 Electrode-based protocol developed to detect gunshot residue

From: Gunshot residue detection technologies—a review

S. no. Researcher Electrode used Method employed/extraction technique Metal detected Time
1. Konnaur et al. (1977) Hg-film graphite ASV Acid Wash Pb & Sb > 10 min
2. Liu et al. (1980a; 1980b) HDME ASV Acid washing Pb, Sb, Cu, Zn > 10 min
3. Briahye et al. (1982) HDME ASV Swabbing Pb, Sb 8 min
4. Briner et al. (1985) Hg-film GCE ASV Swabbing Sb >10 min
5. Woo lever et al. (1999) Hg-film GCE ASV Swabbing Ba, Sb, Pb 6 min
6. De Donato (2005) HDME BIA Acid/swab/tape Pb 3 min
7. Rodriguez et al. (2009) Bi-film CPE ASV Swabbing Pb 2 min
8. Eerden et al. (2011) HDME CadSV Tape Sb, Pb 6 min
9. Mahony et al. (2012) Au-modified SPCE ASV Swipe Pb, Cu 2 min
10. Sales et al. (2012) Au microelectrode CV/PCA/ASV Swabbing Organic/Inorganic 1 min, 10 min
  1. ASV anodic stripping voltammetry, CadSV cathodic adsorptive stripping voltammetry, PCA principal component analysis, HMDE hanging mercury drop electrode, BIA batch injection analysis, GCE glassy carbon electrode, Pb lead, Sb antimony, Cu copper, Zn zinc, Ba barium, Au-modified gold modified, Bi-film bismuth film, CV cyclic voltammetry, Hg-film mercury film