|Color test/references||Constituent detected||Color change||Merits||Demerits|
|Dermal nitrate test (Forensic ballistics, Chemical analysis of gunshot residues (GSR), n.d.)||Nitrates||Blue color spots||1. Major advantage of this test is that it can be applied to all nitro groups’ compound analysis.||1. Disadvantage is that it give false positive result in presence of tobacco, leguminous plants, fertilizers etc.|
|Walker’s test/Griess test (Griess, 1858)||Nitrites||Red color spots||1. Advantage in using this technique is that it can be helpful in detecting the nitrites in partially burnt and unburnt propellants.||1. Disadvantage is many compounds other than nitrocellulose propellants can give positive reaction e.g. Urine, fertilizer, face powder etc.|
|Modified Griess test||Nitrites||Pink color||1. Major advantage of this technique is that it can be performed within few minutes and found to be better than dermal nitrate test.||1. It can be applied to detect nitrites only but not for GSR.|
|Harrison and Gilroy’s Test (Harrison & Gilroy, 1959)||Pb, Sb, Ba||
1. More successful than dermal nitrate test as it cause less false positive cases.|
2. Another advantage is that it can be easily applied to detect GSR samples on hand swabs.
|1. Interference with other materials at the SOC can be obtained.|
|Sodium rhodizonate test (Steinburg et al., 1984; Bartsch et al., 1996)||
Blue to violet (pH 7)|
Bright red color (pH 2.8)
Red-brown (any pH)
|1. Major advantage of this color test is that it can detect lead and its form in trace level.||1. Major disadvantage with this is it cannot be applied for Ba detection|
|Lunge test (Forensic ballistics, Chemical analysis of gunshot residues (GSR), n.d.)||Nitrocellulose/nitrites||Deep blue color||1.Major advantage is it can be performed in few minutes||
1. Major disadvantage is it can give positive reaction with other everyday used chemicals.|
2. Not further applied for detecting GSR on hand swabs.
|Di-thio-oxamide (DTO) test (Forensic ballistics, Chemical analysis of gunshot residues (GSR), n.d.)||Copper, nickel, cobalt||Copper—very dark-green coloration, nickel—pink to violet color, and cobalt—brown color||
1. Advantage in using this color test is that it can be applied to detect Cu, Ni and thus helpful in the case of Cupro-nickel-jacketed bullet.|
2. Utilized for determining the bullet entry and exit holes in case of fully jacketed gilding metal (Cu/Zn) and cupro-nickel (Cu/Ni) bullets.
1. Drawback with the color test is its applicability to detect nitrites only and not for GSR.|
2 Another disadvantage is in presence of blood false negative result can be obtained.
|Marshall test (Forensic ballistics, Chemical analysis of gunshot residues (GSR), n.d.)||Nitrites||Purple spots||1.Advantage of the chemical is that it mainly performed to detect the propellant particles in range of firing estimations||1. The test is specific for nitrites and not for GSR|
|Tewari test (Forensic ballistics, Chemical analysis of gunshot residues (GSR), n.d.)||Nitrites||Yellow spot||1. Advantage of this test is that it is mainly used for determining range of firing estimations by visualization of propellant particles.||1.Performed specifically for nitrites and not for GSR|