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Table 1 Studies summary on sex determination using molecular analysis in forensic dentistry

From: Molecular analysis for sex determination in forensic dentistry: a systematic review

No. Reference Sample source Age (years old) Number of samples DNA concentration Treatment DNA extraction Analysis method Technique Result Conclusion
1 (Reddy et al. 2011) Epithelial cells from toothbrush N/A 30 individuals using toothbrush in 1-week period − 0.86–29.32 ng/μl No storage time, after 1 month storage, 2 months storage Chelex 100 Sex determining on Y chromosome region (SRY gene) RT-PCR Sensitivity 100%, specificity 73,3%, all males subject identified, 4 from 15 female wrongly identified as males SRY gene detection with PCR was a valuable and sensitive procedure but minute contamination can alter the result. Toothbrush can be used as a source for gender identification
2 (Zapico and Ubelaker 2013) Dentin and Pulp 39–70 Two incisors and 12 molars 24.2 and 57 μg/ml. Lower values: 1.15–9.27 μg/ml None Silica-based method Two different regions of the amelogenin gene PCR DNA extraction was successful in almost all samples; sex determination was successful 100% with both AMEL primers A person’s ex was possible to determine by analyzing dental pulp and dentin in a minimal amount
3 (Nakanishi et al. 2015) Intraoral epithelial cells N/A 20 males and 20 females 1 ng (minimum template DNA 0.2 ng) DNA was degraded with 0.2 or 0.4 J ultraviolet irradiation then compared with normal DNA Silica-coated magnetic particles. Detection number of the amelogenin-X chromosomes without CNV RT-PCR 20 males and 20 females were determined accurately Sex determination method by the number of X chromosomes which can determine female gender directly for forensic sex determination tools.
4 (Chauhan et al. 2016) Saliva from dental prosthesis N/A 3 saliva samples (5 ml each) with six separated dental prosthesis N/A Six separated dental prothesis dip in three saliva samples for 15 min, then remain drying at room temperature Silica-based method 13 core CODIS loci, D2S1338, D19S433, and amelogenin PCR DNA extraction result was 100%; sex identification was 100% Dental prosthesis patients can be used as a genomic DNA source and adequate for further forensic analysis
5 (Kholief et al. 2017) Dental pulp 19–58 40 sound and carious freshly extracted teeth, male and female N/A None Silica-based method DYS14 and SRY gene PCR DNA extraction was 100% successful, sex determination 100% success with no false positive or false negative result Dental pulp was a very reliable source for DNA. SYS14 and SRY genes were efficient for sex determination
6 (Srivastava et al. 2017) Mesiodens teeth N/A 8 extracted human mesiodens teeth 4–14 ng/μl, 2 samples below the detection level None Phenol-chloroform Amelogenin gene PCR 37.5% of samples, DNA, cannot be extracted; 75% of samples were successfully identified male and female Mesiodens were a good source for DNA and for sex identification using PCR analysis
7 (Dutta et al. 2017) Dental pulp/dentine N/A 50 samples of sound and carious, mostly premolars and molars N/A Samples group as immerged in seawater, desiccated for 1 month and 3 months, respectively, incinerated 500–1050 °C for constant 5 min and 500 °C and 600 °C for 10 min Phenol-chloroform Amelogenin gene PCR 100% retrieval of genomic DNA and gender determination Extreme environment on the human dentition is often found so it is worthwhile to be studied in teeth. Targeting amelogenin gene locus in forensic dentistry was one of the reliable methods.
8 (Chowdhury et al. 2018) Dental pulp and teeth which undergo artificial forensic environment N/A 130 premolars (10 immediately extirpated, 120 teeth were grouping) Dental pulp fresh 70.22 μg/ml; desiccated 26.86–35.09 μg/ml, submerged in salt water 16.09–25.28 μg/ml; buried in soil 11.09–18.69 μg/ml, 150–350 °C 0–26.19 μg/ml Samples group as desiccated at room temperature (30–90 days), submerged in salt water, buried in soil 30 and 90 days, respectively, and subjected to high temperature 150 °C and 350 °C Phenol chloroform Amelogenin gene PCR DNA extraction was successful in almost all samples except for teeth heated 350 °C. Sex determination of all samples was 100% in sensitivity and specificity value Teeth were a potent DNA source and resist in extreme conditions and can be used to determine sex.
9 (Bharath et al. 2019) Epithelial cells from a removable partial denture 24–81 30 healthy male-female maxillary partial denture 2.17–117.57 ng/μl; purity 1.5–2.08 Samples collected after 24 h of prothesis insertion Chelex 100 SRY gene RT-PCR The accuracy was 100% in sex determination DNA can be obtained from a removable partial denture in forensic identification, and the SRY gene was a male-specific marker that gives 100% accuracy for sex identification
10 (Lim et al. 2019) Teeth N/A 17 extracted teeth with and without caries Clear band showed in concentration ranging from 27.3 to 130.6 ng/μl. Not successfully visualized ranging from 3.8 to 24.0 ng/μl. Purity 1.30–1.88 Sample group as teeth, burnt 100–500 °C (2 min) and 100 °C, 200 °C, and 300 °C (2–10 min, respectively) Phenol-chloroform Amelogenin gene Nested PCR 76.47% samples were accurately identified. Sensitivity 63.64%, Specificity 100%. In degraded samples, the amelogenin gene alone was not reliable Sex typing can be assessed from burn teeth, and nested PCR was a useful technique in amplifying degraded genetic materials
  1. CNV copy number variation, CODIS Combined Deoxyribonucleic Acid Index System, DNA deoxyribonucleic acid, N/A not available, PCR polymerase chain reaction, RT-PCR real-time polymerase chain reaction, SRY sex-determining region Y