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Table 1 Comparison of sociodemographic variables and suicide behavior characteristics

From: Who dies and who survives? Investigating the difference between suicide decedents and suicide attempters

Variables Suicide attempter; N = 150 Suicide victim; N = 206 Univariate; OR (95%CI), p value Multivariate; OR (95%CI), p value
Age in years (mean ± SD) 28.81 ± 7.88 36.72 ± 14.72 1.06 (1.04–1.08), p < 0.001** 1.06 (1.03–1.09), p < 0.001**
Sex
 Female 81 (54%) 66 (32%) Reference Reference
 Male 69 (46%) 140 (68%) 2.49 (1.61–3.84), p < 0.001** 2.46 (1.39–4.34), p = 0.002*
Caste    
 Forward caste 6 (4.0%) 9 (4.4%) Reference
 Backward caste 69 (46.0%) 137 (66.5%) 0.76 (0.26–2.22), p = 0.618
 Scheduled caste 75 (50.0%) 53 (25.7%) 0.36 (0.23–0.58), p < 0.001**
 Schedule tribe 0 (0%) 7 (3.4%)  
Religious affiliation    
 Minority (Muslim and Christian) 51 (34.0%) 39 (18.9%) Reference
 Hindu 99 (66.0%) 167 (81.1%) 2.20 (1.36–3.58), p = 0.001*  
Marital status     
 Married 123 (82.0%) 156 (75.7%) Reference  
 Never married or widow or separated 27 (18.0%) 50 (24.3%) 1.46 (0.86–2.47), p = 0.196
Family type     
 Joint 47 (31.3%) 67 (32.5%) Reference  
 Nuclear 103 (68.7%) 139 (67.5%) 0.95 (0.60–1.49), p = 0.819
Education status     
 Educated 116 (77.9%) 145 (70.4%) Reference  
 Uneducated 33 (22.1%) 61 (29.6%) 1.48 (0.91–2.41), p = 0.143
Occupationa    
 Employed 111 (74.0%) 167 (81.1%) Reference
 Unemployed 39 (26.0%) 39 (18.9%) 0.66 (0.40–1.10), p = 0.113
 Socioeconomic score (mean ± SD) 26.32 ± 6.27 24.51 ± 7.68 0.96 (0.94–1.00), p = 0.022* 0.94 (0.90–0.98), p = 0.005*
Alcohol consumption     
 No 118 (78.7%) 126 (61.2%) Reference
 Yes 32 (21.3%) 80 (38.8%) 2.34 (1.45–3.79), p = 0.001*
Tobacco usage     
 No 120 (80.0%) 159 (77.2%) Reference
 Yes 30 (20.0%) 47 (22.8%) 1.18 (0.71–1.98), p = 0.602
Family history suicidal behavior     
 No 101 (67.3%) 153 (74.3%) Reference  
 Yes 49 (32.7%) 53 (25.7%) 0.71 (0.45–1.13), p = 0.157
Previous suicide attempt    
 No 128 (85.3%) 191 (92.7%) Reference
 Yes 22 (14.7%) 15 (7.3%) 0.48 (0.24–0.97), p = 0.049*
Alcohol intoxication during the suicidal act     
 No 122 (81.3%) 159 (77.2%) Reference  
 Yes 28 (18.7%) 47 (22.8%) 1.29 (0.76–2.18), p = 0.360  
Season     
 Winter 43 (29.3%) 42 (20.4%) Reference Reference
 Spring 42 (28.6%) 46 (22.3%) 1.12 (0.62–2.04), p = 0.707 0.78 (0.36–1.67), p = 0.516
 Summer 38 (25.9%) 59 (28.6%) 1.59 (0.88–2.86), p = 0.123 0.94 (0.44–2.00), p = 0.870
 Autumn 24 (16.3%) 59 (28.6%) 2.52 (1.33–4.76), p = 0.005* 2.53 (1.16–5.50), p = 0.019*
Method employedb     
 Violent 8 (5.3%) 61 (29.6%) 7.47 (3.45–16.17), p < 0.001** 17.82 (7.33–43.32), p < 0.001**
 Non-violent 142 (94.7%) 145 (70.4%) Reference Reference
Reason for the suicidal act     
 Economic 38 (25.3%) 86 (41.7%) 2.11 (1.33–3.35), p = 0.001*
 Health 14 (9.3%) 36 (17.5%) 2.06 (1.066–3.97), p = 0.031*
 Marriage 51 (34.0%) 41 (19.9%) 0.48 (0.298–0.78), p = 0.003* 0.42 (0.22–0.78), p = 0.007*
 Personal/social 62 (41.3%) 61 (29.6%) 0.60 (0.384–0.93), p = 0.022*
  1. *Significant at the 0.05 level (two-tailed)
  2. **Significant at the 0.01 level (two-tailed)
  3. aEmployed: salaried employee, agricultural labors, farmers, and self-employed; unemployed: housewives, students, and unemployed
  4. bNon-violent method: poisoning; violent method: hanging, self-immolation, drowning, self-inflicted sharp injury, and coming under moving a train