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Table 4 Describe the Statistical Results of minutiae with respect to general pattern type

From: Validation studies on gender determination from fingerprints with special emphasis on ridge characteristics

Minutiae characteristics Arches Loop Whorl
Mean S.D. Mean S.D. Mean S.D.
Males
 Ridge ending 16.4 5.59 20.42 3.55 18.46 3.68
 Bifurcation 14.2 2.16 17.01 4.47 16.06 3.96
 Short ridge 4.5 3.04 2.43 1.88 2.57 1.62
Females
 Ridge ending 17.55 3.5 19.75 6.13 16.44 5.51
 Bifurcation 15.66 5.04 15.17 4.58 14.89 4.42
 Short ridge 1.71 1.11 1.97 1.46 1.93 1.19