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Table 1 Main characteristics of the studies included in the review

From: Suicide behaviour and arsenic levels in drinking water: a possible association?

Author, year Setting Study period Study population Arsenic levels Suicide rates (N/100,000 deaths)
Rihmer, 2015 Hungary 2005-2011 1639 settlements divided in:
(I) 5871a
(II)5017a
(III)3066a
(IV)4373a
(I) Low 10 μg/l
(II) Intermediate 11–30 μg/l
(III) High 31–50 μg/l
(IV) Very high >50 μg/l
(I) – 23.6 (18.4)
(II) – 30.6 (17.2)
(III) – 32 (17.7)
(IV) – 33.8 (21.4)
P < 0.001
Pompili, 2017 Italy −1980–2011 (analysis of suicides rates)
−2009–2010 (collection of water samples)
145 sites
157 water samples
104 provinces
0.969 μg/l CI 0.543–1.396 μg/l 7.53b
  1. aaverage population of settlements in the group; division based on arsenic levels; bNegatively associated with suicide rates, calculated through univariate regression modeling